Comprehensive Eye Care

Regular eye exams are an important tool in eye health by detecting and preventing eye diseases and evaluating the overall health of the patient. Some diseases, such as glaucoma, develop gradually without symptoms of pain or vision loss, so patients may not notice that anything is wrong until significant and irreversible damage has been done. Early detection of eye diseases allows for a choice of treatment options and a reduced risk of permanent damage.

A Regularly Scheduled Eye Exam

Patients should see their doctor for a comprehensive eye exam every year. Children should have regular tests to ensure the proper development of their vision and prevent any interference with academic achievements. Older adults are often at a higher risk for eye conditions such as glaucoma, macular degeneration and cataracts. Even if eyes are healthy, a regular eye exam will provide the doctor with an ability to view the blood vessels of the eye. With information obtained during an eye examination, physicians have been able to detect chronic conditions such as high cholesterol, diabetes and high blood pressure. The early detection of these conditions can lead to early treatment.

An eye exam is different from a vision screening, which only tests vision and is commonly performed by a school nurse, pediatrician or other health care provider. Only an eye doctor can perform a comprehensive eye exam to evaluate the overall health of the eye and detect any changes that may indicate a vision disorder. During a routine eye exam, the doctor will evaluate the eyes for refractive errors, as well as common conditions such as:

  • Amblyopia
  • Strabismus
  • Age related macular degeneration
  • Eye tracking
  • Presbyopia
  • Glaucoma
  • Diabetic retinopathy

This is done through a series of eye tests that examine all aspects of the eye and may include:

  • Visual field test
  • Dilation
  • Slit-lamp examination
  • Cover test
  • Retinoscopy
  • Refraction

These tests are performed in the doctor's office and are safe for all patients.

Common Eye Conditions

The most common eye conditions diagnosed during a comprehensive eye exam involve refractive errors that cause blurry vision for patients. These conditions affect millions of people and often get progressively worse as patients age. Fortunately, refractive errors can easily be treated to let patients enjoy clear vision at all distances.


Also known as nearsightedness or shortsightedness, myopia is a condition of the eyes in which nearby objects are clear and distant objects appear blurry.


Also known as farsightedness, hyperopia is a condition of the eyes where the focus on distant objects is better than the focus on objects closer to the eye, so nearby objects appear blurry. The eye is designed to focus images directly on the surface of the retina; with hyperopia, light rays focus behind the surface of the retina, producing a blurry image.


Astigmatism occurs when the cornea - the clear covering over the eye - is slightly irregular in shape, preventing light from focusing properly on the retina in the back of the eye. With astigmatism some of that light focuses either in front of or behind the retina, resulting in vision that may be blurry for either near or far vision or, for all objects.


Presbyopia usually begins in individuals over the age of 40 and continues to progress throughout the years. It causes blurry vision at near due to the eye's inability to focus on objects that are close. Reading glasses, or bifocals, will correct for this.


This condition is also known as "lazy eye". Amblyopia happens when one of the eyes has an unclear image and the brain begins to ignore that eye. This can occur due to a large difference in refractive error between the eyes or if one eye is turned in or out. This can be treated with glasses, patching, and sometimes surgery.

Dry Eye

Signs and symptoms of this common condition are foreign body sensation, sandy, gritty, watery, burning or red eyes. It is a very common condition and can be treated with lubricating eye drops, medicated eye drops, punctual plugs, warm compresses, and other modalities.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness in working aged individuals in North America. It is important that all diabetics have their eyes examined annually by an eye doctor to detect early signs of diabetic eye disease. This includes a dilated eye exam

Age Related Macular Degeneration

This condition occurs when deposits called drusen accumulate in the macula. The macula is the part of the eye that is used to see objects clearly and to see colour. The accumulation of deposits can lead to dry or wet macular degeneration and can cause severe vision loss and sometimes can be blinding.


Glaucoma is screened for and often diagnosed during comprehensive eye examinations. Please see the detailed section about glaucoma.

Refractive Surgery Co-Management

There are many varieties of refractive surgery, such as PRK, LASIK, clear cataract extraction, and more. Vision correction surgery is most often done with lasers to re-shape the cornea which can eliminate or decrease the need to wear glasses or contact lenses.

An optometrist plays a vital role in the pre and post-operative management of refractive surgery. Often an optometrist will examine your eyes before the procedure, as well as 2-3 times throughout the year to ensure your eyes are healing and seeing well. As well, many refractive surgeries require you to have an annual eye exam to maintain the warranty on your procedure.

If you are interested in refractive surgery, you should book an appointment with an optometrist to determine if this is an option for you.

For more information about Our Services, or to schedule an appointment, please complete our online form or call 613.507.4800.